Tawafisan essential part (rukn)of Umrah, and the tawa f al‑ziyarah (also called tawaf al‑'ifadah')isa rukn of the Hajj al‑tamattu; Hajj al‑'ifrad and Hajj al‑qiran. As said earlier, the assumption of ihramisthe first act of the pilgrim regardless of whether he comes for Umrah mufradah or for any of the three
types of Hajj.
Now, after the assuming of ihram, what is the next step for the
pilgrim? Is it tawaf, or wuquf, or something else? The answer is:
it depends on the purpose (niyyah)with which the pilgrim assumes ihram. If it is Umrah, then the next
step is tawaf, regardless of
whether it is Umrah mufradah or Umrat al‑tamattu' Thus tawafisthe second step for the mu'tamir (pilgrim
intending Umrah), by agreement of all the legal schools.
However, if the purpose of ihramisHajj only‑‑such as in the case of pilgrim on Hajj al‑'ifrad, or one intending
to perform the Hajj al‑tamattu after
getting through the acts of Umrah‑‑the second step is (as shall be
explained later) wuquf in Arafat. In
other words, one who enters Makkah with the sole purpose of Umrah or Hajj al‑tamattu performs tawafbefore everything else, then sa’y and then taqsir. After this, if on Hajj
al‑tamattu, he assumes ihramfor a second time; but he is not required to perform another tawafafter this ihram. The tawaf(pertaining to the Hajj acts), as we shall explain, comes after
getting through the wuquf at Arafat
and passage through Mina.
Kinds of Umrah in View of the Ahl al‑Sunnah
The imams of the four Sunni
schools distinguish between three kinds of tawaf:
1. Tawaf al‑Qudum: It is the tawafperformed by the outsiders', (i.e.
those coming from outside Makkah and from beyond its outskirts within a radius
of 88 kms.) on entry into Makkah. It is similar to the two raka'at of salatperformed
as tahiyyat al‑masjid (lit. greeting of the mosque'), and so
is also called tawaf al‑tahiyyah'' The four Sunni schools agree on
its being mustahabb, and no penalty
is required for default according to all except the Malikis who require a blood
2. Tawaf al‑Ziyarah: This tawaf(also called tawaf al‑'ifadah')is performed by Hajj pilgrims after getting through the acts of
Mina, the ramy of jamarat al‑aqabah, the sacrifice
(dhibh), and the halq or the taqsir. The pilgrim performs this tawafon returning to Makkah. It is called tawaf
al‑ziyarah' because it is performed on the visit (ziyarah)to the Ka'bah after leaving Mina. It is called tawaf
the pilgrims pour forth (ifadah' means pouring forth')
into Makkah from Mina. It is also called tawaf al‑hajj' because by
consensus of all the schools it is rukn of
performing this tawafall
things become permissible for the (Sunni) Hajj pilgrim, even sexual intimacy
with women. The Imamiyyah, who disagree, say that sex is not permitted before
performing the sa’y between Safa and Marwah followed by a second tawaf, which they call tawaf al‑nisa'.'
This shall be further clarified presently.
3. Tawaf al‑Wada: It is the last tawafperformed by the Hujjaj before departing from Makkah. The Hanafi and Hanbali schools
consider it obligatory, though all that is required of the defaulter is a
sacrifice. The Malikis consider it mustahabb
and do not require any penalty for the default. Al‑Shafi'i has two
opinions on this matter. (al‑Mughni,
al‑Fiqh ala al‑madhahib al‑'arbaah, Fiqh al‑Sunnah)
Kinds ofTawaf from the
The Shiah agree with the Sunni
schools about the legitimacy of the above three kinds of tawaf, and regard the second tawafi.e. tawaf al‑ziyarah as a rukn of the Hajj whose omission makes the
Hajj invalid.  However, the first kind, i.e. tawaf al‑qudum isconsidered mustahabb, and
may be omitted. Regarding the third, i.e. tawaf al‑wada; they agree
with the Ma1iki school in its being mustahabb,
there being nothing on the defaulter.
the Shiah add another kind of tawaf to the above three, the tawaf al‑nisa', which they consider
obligatory, its omission being impermissible in Umrah mufradah as well as in all the three
of Hajj (i.e. tamattu; qiran, and ifrad). They do not permit its omission except in case of Umrat al‑tamattu; considering the
tawaf al‑nisa' performed
during the course of Hajj al‑tamattu
schools of the Ahl al‑Sunnah state that there is no obligatory tawafafter the tawaf al‑ziyarah, after which sexual
intimacy is permissible. The Shi'ah say that it is obligatory upon the pilgrim,
after performing tawaf al‑ziyarah
and the sa’y, to perform another tawaf, the tawaf al‑nisa; which derives its name precisely because of the
sanction of permissibility of relations with women (nisa')following it. They
say that if the pilgrim defaults in regard to this tawaf, sexual relations are forbidden for man
and woman (for men even the conclusion of marriage contract), unless he/she
performs it in person or deputes another to perform it on his/her behalf; and
if he/she dies without performing it or without deputing someone to do it for him/her, it is incumbent upon the
heir (wali)to have it performed on the behalf of the dead person. According
to them, even in case of a mumayyiz child
who fails to perform the tawaf al‑nisa'
while performing the Hajj, even if he omits it by mistake or on account of
ignorance, women are forbidden to him after adulthood nor he may conclude a
marriage contract (aqd)unless he performs it himself or
deputes another for the job.
To summarize, the Shiah consider
three tawaf's to be obligatory
for the pilgrim on the Hajj al‑tamattu:
(1)the tawafof the
conjugate Umrah, of which it is rukn;(2)the tawaf al‑ziyarah (or tawaf al‑hajj), which is a rukn of the
Hajj; and (3) the tawaf al‑nisa',
which is also an obligatory part of it, though not a rukn similar to the Surat al‑Fatihah
in relation to the salat. The
Ahl al‑Sunnah agree with the Shiah in all except tawaf al‑nisa; which they do not
recognize. However, of a pilgrim on the Hajj
al‑'ifrad or Hajj al‑qiran,
only two tawaf's are
required by the Shiah. 
Entry into Makkah
All the schools agree that it is mustahabb for one entering Makkah to
take a bath, pass through its heights during the approach towards the city,
enter through Bab Bani Shaybah, raise his hands on sighting al‑Bayt al‑Haram,
pronounce takbir and tahlil, and to recite whatever he can of
certain prayers prescribed by tradition. The Malikis, however, disagree about
the istihbab of raising the hands for
Thereafter, he approaches the
Black Stone; if possible kisses it or caresses it with his hand or else just
makes a gesture with his hand, and prays.
According to the Imamiyyah, it is
mustahabb while entering the haram of Makkah to be barefooted, to
chew the leaves of a plant called adhkhir'
used for refreshing the mouth, or to clean the mouth to purge its odour.
The Provisos (Shurat) of Tawaf
to the Shafi'i, Maliki, and Hanbali schools ritual purity (taharah, i.e. freedom from hadath
and khabath)isrequired; thus the tawafof one who is Junub or a woman undergoing hayd
ornifas, isnot valid. Also, it is necessary to
cover one's private parts completely as in salat.
author of the Fiqh al‑Sunnah (p. 154, 1955)says: "In the opinion of the Hanafis, freedom from hadath isnot an essential requirement. However, it is an obligation whose
omission may be compensated through a blood sacrifice. So, if one performs tawafin the state of minor impurity (hadath asghar)his/her tawafisvalid, though one is required to
sacrifice a sheep. If tawafis performed in the state of janabah or hayd, the tawafisvalid, though the
sacrifice of a camel is required during the pilgrim's stay in Makkah."
to al‑Fiqh ala al‑madhdhib
al‑'arba ah (vol.I, p. 535,
1939): "The taharah of the clothes, the body, and
the location of prayer (in salat)is(only) a highly recommended sunnah (sunnah mu'akkadah)from the Hanafi viewpoint; (this is true) even of tawaf,
there being no penalty even if all the clothes are completely ritually unclean
According to the Imamiyyah, taharah from hadath and khabath is a
proviso for validity of an obligatory tawaf. In the same way, covering
the private parts (satr al‑awrah)with a ritually clean cloth
legitimately owned (ghayr maghsub)isalso a requirement. Moreover, it should not be made of silk or the skin of
an animal whose flesh may not be eaten, nor made of golden fabric ‑‑requirements
which are the same as for salat. It
may be said that the Imamiyyah are even more stringent with regard to tawafthan salat. They consider a blood spot of the size of a dirham as pardonable for one performing salat, but not for one performing tawaf. Further, they consider wearing of silk
and gold as impermissible even for women during tawaf(which is permissible for women in salat). According to the Imamiyyah,
circumcision is a requirement for tawafwithout which it is invalid, both for an adult man and a child (al‑Jawahir, al‑Hada'iq).
The manner of Performing Tawaf
According to the Imamiyyah and
Hanbali schools, the purpose or niyyah must
be specified in every tawaf; but
according to the Maliki, Shafii and Hanbali schools, a general niyyah for the Hajj is
sufficient and no separate niyyah for tawaf is required. (al‑Jawahir, Fiqh
al‑Sunnah) As pointed out earlier, niyyah as a motive behind all voluntary actions is an inevitable
and necessary matter; as such, debate and controversy regarding it is futile.
Ibn Rushd, in his Bidayat al‑mujahid, writes: "The
Sunni legists are in consensus on the opinion that every tawaf whether
obligatory or not, begins from the Black Stone (and according to the Fiqh al‑Sunnah ends thereat). The
pilgrim, if he can, kisses it, otherwise touches it with his hand. Then, with
the Ka'bah on his left, starts moving towards the right to make the seven
circumambulations, walking with a moderately fast pace (ramal) during
the first three rounds and with an ordinary pace during the last four rounds.
(The ramal  applies to the tawaf al‑qudum performed on entry into Makkah by the
Umrah and Hajj pilgrim, not one on Hajj
al‑tamattu; also no ramal is required of women pilgrims).
Then he kisses al‑Rukn al‑Yamani" (the south‑western
corner or rukn of the Ka'bah which
falls before the one with the Black Stone mounted on it during the anti‑clockwise
rounds made during tawaf.‑‑Tr.).
According to the Imamiyyah, there
are certain things obligatory (wajib)in tawaf they are as follows:
1. The niyyah, to which reference has already been made.
The tawaf should be made on foot, and in case of inability on a mount.
Many Imamiyyah fuqaha' do not recognize this requirement and a group of them
explicitly permit tawaf on a mount. They cite the precedent of the
Prophet (s) who performed tawaf on camelback, according to traditions in
al‑Kafi and Man la yahduruhu
3. The condition that the tawaf
should begin and end at the Black Stone is stated in this manner in many books
of fiqh: "The tawaf should be begun at the Black Stone, so that the
first part of one's body is in front of the first part of the Black Stone. Then
the pilgrim begins moving with the Black Stone on his left, ending the last
circumambulation exactly in line with the point where he commenced his first,
thus ensuring that the seven rounds are completed without advancing or falling
behind a single step or more. The danger of advancing or falling behind
necessitates that the first circumambulation should commence at the beginning
of the Black Stone; because if begun in front of its middle, one cannot be sure
of having advanced or fallen behind some steps; and if one began from its end,
then the beginning may not be said to have commenced from the Black Stone
...." and so on and so forth.
The author of the Jawahir al‑kalam
makes elaborate critical remarks about this kind of meticulousness, which show
his balanced and moderate taste and temperament. This is the substance of what
he has to say: "The difficulty and the exasperating haraj (impediment) inherent in realizing such a requirement is not
concealed .... To give it consideration is to fall into silly scruples. The
debate is similar to the depraved and unseemly musings of madmen.  And it
has been narrated of the Prophet (s) that he performed tawaf on
camelback, and attaining this kind of precision is infeasible when on a
That which can be understood from
the remarks of the author of al‑Jawahir is that he agrees with the
author of al‑Shara'i, who confines himself to this statement,
without adding another word: "It is obligatory to begin and end the tawaf
at the Stone." It means—as is also apparent from his above‑mentioned
remarks‑‑that in the opinion of the author of al‑Jawahir
it is sufficient to fulfil this condition in the commonly understood sense. Al‑Sayyid
al‑Hakim, in al‑Munsik, holds a similar position when he
says, "The pilgrim performing tawaf should begin a little before
the Stone with the intent of performing what is really obligatory. When he
performs in this fashion he knows that he began at the Stone and finished
Ka'bah must be on the left during tawaf. According to al‑Sayyid al‑Khu'i,
it is sufficient to realize this requirement in the commonly understood sense
(i.e. without giving scrupulous attention to precision); slight shifts of
direction do not matter as long as the movement meets the requirement in the
ordinary sense. According to him the only crucial factor is satisfaction of the
requirement in its ordinary sense.
5. The Hajar Isma'il must be
included in tawaf. That is the circumambulation should be made around it
and without entering it,  and it should be kept to the left while making the
tawaf. Thus if one passes between it and the Ka'bah during tawaf
making it fall to his right, the tawaf becomes invalid.
6. The body should be completely
out of the Ka'bah (because God says which means that tawaf should be made
around and so‑outside the Ka'bah, not inside it). Also if one were to
walk on its walls or on the protruding part of its walls foundations, the tawaf
would be invalid.
7. The tawaf should be
performed between the Ka'bah and the rock called Maqam Ibrahim,
which is a stone on which Abraham (a) stood during the building of the Ka'bah.
8. The tawaf
should consist of seven rounds, no more no less, Obviously, recognition of
these points requires an informed guide to indicate them to the pilgrims.
After finishing tawaf it is obligatory to offer two rak'ah's ofsalat behind the
Maqam Ibrahim regardless of the crowd; but if it is not possible, one may offer
the prayer in front of it, and if that, too, is not possible, anywhere in al‑Masjid
al‑Haram. It is not permissible to begin a second tawaf without
performing the two‑rakah prayer.
If one forgets performing them, it is obligatory on him to return and perform
them. But if returning were not feasible, he can offer them wherever he can.
This is true of the obligatory tawaf. But if the tawaf were a mustahabb one, he can offer the two rakah's wherever he can. (al‑Tadhkirah, al‑Jawahir, al‑Hada'iq)
This shows that the jurists of
all the legal schools are in agreement over certain points: the tawaf
starts and ends at the Black Stone; the Ka'bah should be on the left during tawaf;
the tawaf should be made outside the Ka'bah; seven rounds should be
made; kissing the Black Stone and the Rukn is mustahabb. However, they
disagree with respect to the permissibility of break between successive rounds of the tawaf. According to the Maliki, Imamiyyah, and
Hanbali schools, continuity without break (muwalat) is obligatory. According to
the Shafii and Hanafi schools, it is sunnah (i.e. mustahabb) to observe
muwalat, so if there is a substantial break between the rounds without any
excuse, the tawaf is not invalidated. (Fiqh al‑Sunnah)Similarly
according to Abu Hanifah, if one leaves off after the fourth round, he must
complete his tawaf if he is in Makkah; but if he leaves Makkah, he must
compensate it with a blood sacrifice. (al‑Tadhkirah)
The schools disagree with respect
to the necessity of the tawaf
being undertaken on foot. The Hanafi, Hanbali, and Maliki schools
consider it obligatory. According to the Shafi'i school and a group of
Imamiyyah scholars it is not obligatory and one may perform tawaf on a
mount. Also, they disagree with respect to the two‑rak'ah prayer (rak'atan) after tawaf.
According to the Maliki, Hanafi, and Imamiyyah schools, the rakatan‑‑which
is exactly like the daybreak prayer‑‑are obligatory. The Shafi'i
and Hanbali schools regard it as mustahabb.
The Mustahabbat of Tawaf
The book Fiqh al‑Sunnah,
discussing the topic under the heading "Sunan al‑tawaf;
states, "Of things which are sunnah in tawaf are: kissing the Black
Stone while starting the tawaf, accompanied with tahlil and takbir, to raise the two hands as in salat,
to greet the Stone by drawing one's hands upon it (istilam), to kiss it
soundlessly, to lay one's cheek on it if possible, otherwise to touch it
only." Other mustahabbat are:idtiba  for
men, ramal, and istilam of al‑Rukn al‑Yamani.
According to al‑Lumat
al‑Dimashqiyyah, an Imamiyyah work, of things mustahabb intawaf are: to halt in front of
the Black Stone, to make the prayer later offered with the hands raised, to
recite the Surat al‑Qadr, remember Allah‑‑subhanahu wa
ta'ala, to walk peacefully, to draw one's hand on the Black Stone, to kiss it
if possible otherwise to make a gesture, to draw one's hand on every corner of
the Ka'bah every time one basses by or to kiss it, to draw one's hand on al‑Mustajar‑‑which
is in front of the door and before al‑Rukn
al‑Yamani‑‑during the seventh round, and to keep oneself as
near as possible to the Ka'bah. To speak during tawafapart from dhikr and recitation of the Qur'an, is makruh.
The Ahkam of Tawaf
According to the Imamiyyah, if a
woman undergoes hayd during tawafshe discontinues tawafand performs sa’y, if it happens after the fourth round. Then she completes the tawafafter attaining taharah, and she is not required to repeat the sa’y. But if the hadath occurs
before completing the fourth round, she waits until the day of Arafah. If by
that time she regains taharah and is
in a position to complete the remaining acts, she does so. Otherwise her Hajj
is converted to Hajj al‑'ifrad.
As mentioned earlier, the Hanafis
permit tawaffor a woman in
the state of hayd, and do not require
taharah. According to the Hanafi work
Fath al‑Qadir, one who leaves
three or fewer rounds of the tawaf
al‑ziyarah should sacrifice a sheep; if four, he remains in the state
of ihramas long as he does
not complete the rounds of tawaf. But
if he leaves off more than four rounds, it is as if he had not started the tawafat all.
to the Imdmiyyah, if after completing the rounds of tawafone doubts whether he performed them
correctly as required by the Shariah or whether he performed the exact number of
rounds, his doubt is of no consequence. His tawafisconsidered valid and
complete and there is nothing upon him. But if the doubt occurs before
finishing the tawaf, he should
consider whether he has performed at least seven rounds, such as when he doubts
whether he made seven or eight rounds. If he is certain of having performed
seven rounds, then his tawafisconsidered valid. However, if he is not
certain of having performed seven rounds‑‑as in the case when he
doubts whether he is in his sixth or seventh round, or in his fifth or sixth‑‑in
that case his tawafisinvalid and he should start afresh. It
is preferable in such a case to complete the present tawafbefore starting afresh.  This is
true of a wajib tawaf. In case of a mustahabb tawaf, the basis is the least number of rounds under seven
one is certain of having performed, regardless of whether the doubt occurs
during or after the last round.
For the non‑Imamiyyah
schools, the rule is the least number of rounds one is certain of having performed‑‑a
rule which is similar to the one they apply to the doubt in the number of rakah's of salat.
These are the ahkam, the mustahabbat, and the wajibat of
tawaf, which, like the ruku and sujud in salat, isalways the same in all cases,
whether as a part of the Umrah mufradah,
Umrat al‑tamattu; Hajj al‑qiran, or Hajj al‑'ifrad, and regardless of whether it is tawaf al‑ziyarah, tawaf al‑nisa; tawaf
al‑qudum, or tawaf al‑wada.
As mentioned above, the tawafisthe next act after ihramin
Umrat al‑tamattu; but in the
Hajj its turn comes after the pilgrim has gone through the rituals of Mind (on
the Id day) as shall be explained
. According to the author of al‑Hada'iq, Hajj is invalid if tawaf
is omitted intentionally, but not if omitted by mistake; although it is
obligatory to perform it after omission.
. According to Ibn Rushd, in
his Bidayah, the four Sunni schools
agree that the pilgrim of Hajj al‑ramattu
'andits related Umrah is required to perform tawaf twice; the
one on Hajj al‑afrad is required to perform tawaf
once. They disagree regarding Hajj al‑qiran,
in which case according to al‑Shafii, Malik, and Ahmad ibn Hanbal,
one tawaf is required, but two according to Abd Hanifah.
. According to al‑Jawahir,
al‑Masalik al‑Urwat al‑wuthqa and other works
of Imamiyyah fiqh, it is not permissible for one in the state of janabah
or hayd to enter or pass through al‑Masjid
al‑Haram or Masjid al‑Rasul (al‑Madinah), to say nothing of
tarrying (makth) therein. However, it is permissible for one in the state of janabah or hayd to pass, without stopping or halting, through other mosques.
[4.] Ramal' means
walking fast, without running or making a rush. According to the Imamiyyah work
al‑Lumah, ramal is mustahabb in the
first three rounds of tawaf‑‑a position which is exactly the
same as that of the four Sunni schools.
. The author of al‑Jawahir
makes this remark when comparing those who stipulate such kind of conditions
for tawaf to others with a similar attitude with regard to the niyyah of salat.
. Hajar Isma il ibn Ibrahim
(a) is the place where his house was built, and there he buried his mother.
. By idtiba ismeant the
style of wearing the rida' whose hanging sides are drawn under the right
armpit and then thrown over the left shoulder. In the book al‑Fiqh ala al‑madhahib al‑'arbaah, the istihbab of idtibta'is ascribed to the Hanafi, Shafii, and
the Hanbali, not to the Maliki, schools.
. This is in agreement with
the fatawa of al‑Sayyid al‑Hakim and al‑Sayyid al‑Khu'i.